Saturday, June 22, 2019

A Conversation about Positivity

It can be very easy to think back to the way times were and think very negatively about the situation we all were in. This is now my 5th year in deprogramming therapy - and have learned mountains and mountains of information - not only about cults, how they work, and how they try to program you and take over your life - but life in general - and loads, and loads of information that are more valuable than anything - and I do mean ANYTHING the Church ever lied to me about - and that was a lot. But the biggest things I have learned in regards to my experiences in a fundamentalist conservative family in the Worldwide Church of God in relation to my childhood is that first off, it was not my fault. second off, change is a part of life. And thirdly, I must find the positive because there is - and sorry if this is cliche - power in positive thinking. Even when we remember. And tonight, I remember the Feast of Tabernacles - in my early childhood.

YES - It's been a long, long time since I was among 14,000 people in a metal warehouse wearing a suit and tie, anticipating the Wonderful World Tomorrow among the only people in that area that God had called on the face of the Earth, or in a sports Arena, with slightly less people yet the same goals. I can still hear the “Why are We Here” booming out of the PA System, the echoing choir practicing, the hum-drum of thousands of people ready to hear the morning sermon, and the feedback of a poorly trained sound technician. I can still feel deep within the anticipation of the food to come and the places we'd visit once the 2-hour service was over.

I can still remember sitting in the back seat of my parents' vehicle, driving to a Family Day Horseback Riding Event – hearing “Unless the Lord Shall Build the House” in my head. I can still remember sitting up in the top left seats of the Arena, giddily excited the service was ending, watching Al Dennis, the song leader, lead “O God, Forsake Me Not”. I remember these events as if they were yesterday.

I can remember the smells of the motels – the clean smell of disinfectant. I can hear the ice machine unloading its newest ice cubes into the dispenser trays at 3 AM. And I can still remember the treats we'd only eat at the Feast – trail mix, health bars (I think they were Heath bars, actually), and the cool plastic cups wrapped in plastic next to the little bitty soaps we'd collect from the hotel. These memories are ingrained in my head deeper than the Grand Canyon, so it seems.

I remember sitting there, watching the minister speaking, absorbed in every detail of my surroundings. The lights – the ceiling fans whirling about. I would sometimes look down when they quoted scripture at all the heads dropping to take note of the exact chapter and verse. I would watch the Ushers ushering, or just standing around like they always seemed to do by every entryway.

I can remember the crying of scared babies when Herbert Armstrong went on a sudden crescendo about the Kingdom, or about how badly we need to wake up, or the “TRUTH”. I remember how his voice would echo around the hall on such a high note. And how quiet the audience was, so deathly quiet. I remember the voice of Art Gilmore with those films – the ones with the giant Statue, the beasts, or the Young Ambassadors. I distinctly remember Herbert Armstrong talking about Roast Porcupine in a very expensive silver serving tray.

I remember wearing that name badge – so proud of wearing an actual Festival badge. I can remember those proud moments of placing a Green Sticker on the car – verifying we were the True Church going to the True Feast. And I can remember when I would get those special Feast Edition magazines – yes, it's that time of year again – Feast Fever, the chill in the air, you can see your breath – and that special moon the night before we took off. These are things you can't forget.

Are these things me? No, they are not me. These are not my worst memories. These aren't my horror stories - But they are a part of my vivid childhood experiences, and they always will be. Pretending they didn't happen doesn't help anything, or change anything. The truth is, I thoroughly enjoyed some of these experiences. Was it - the whole thing - wrong? Absolutely, a lot of it was. Was it incorrect? Certainly. Was this version of the Feast of Tabernacles even done “right”, or “biblically”, if we even could? No, not at all. Yet, this was my experience. This was my life. And I have learned that while everything in life changes, and those days and times and seasons – and the very church itself – is gone, I have learned to take the good out of it and reflect on what was positive, what was decent, and good – because in everything you will find goodness if you look for it and focus on the positive.

Yes, it was a vacation. We were away from home for eight days. We ate good – real good. The hotel was far better than the house we lived in at the time. The people were friendly and like-minded, the enthusiasm and energy was palpable. The choir music was sometimes quite beautiful. We were all dressed beautifully and smelled... as best as we could smell! We went to museums, riverboat cruises, amusement parks, met great people, and made friendships that lasted decades. Even though in retrospect I am fully aware now that the entire thing was a fraudulent, lie-filled, financial convention that benefited the top, I also am fully aware that I was a kid – a child – and despite how much I believed the lies and went all in with it, I could be a kid, and there were moments – like ski-ball, roller-skating, and mall-walks that were a whole lot better than the day to day drab life at home.

What's the point of all of this? The best thing we can do is find the positive out of our experiences. The past is gone. The future will always be the future – but now – NOW is our present. Now is the only time we have. When we reminisce – either in nostalgia or in horror about our past – and though we all have been hurt and pained in life, and many of us by the WCG experience – thinking positively will be as an ointment soothing on the skin and calming to the nerves. Taking just a half an hour to write down the positive things – the positive aspects of our collective experience – might be far more beneficial than you might possibly imagine – and might even bring a smile and a laugh or two. Let's be thankful for those moments in time that brought smiles in unfortunate situations, because to everything there is a season, and to every season of sorrow there's laughter in the rain. We just sometimes have to go deep to find it.

submitted by SHT

HWA: "it's not disobedience to not keep the Sabbath."

In August 1928 he writes his grandparents, 
“'s not disobedience to not keep the Sabbath. The Sabbath is not necessary for salvation.”
In September 1928, Herbert Armstrong's article "The Sabbath, a Perpetual Covenant, was published in "The Bible Advocate".

submitted by SHT

Friday, June 21, 2019

The Two Sides of HWA " appears the Sabbath was abolished in the NT and was replaced by nothing. Some day should be kept but the day is unimportant."

The Two Sides of HWA

In 1926, HWA does his famous 6-month intense study at a library. His study is about the Sabbath as we well remember.
In 1927, he writes an article; "The Foundation for Sunday Sacredness Crumbles". He teaches that worship on Sunday is pagan and it is an invention of the Catholic church. True Christians must keep the Sabbath, it's a sin if they don't.
But wait!!! There's more to the story!!

On February 23, 1928, he writes a letter to Duggar COG7D. HWA writes, 
" appears the Sabbath was abolished in the NT and was replaced by nothing. Some day should be kept but the day is unimportant. The bible doesn't command us to keep the Sabbath and there's no punishment for those who don't keep it."
In August 1928 he writes his grandparents, 
"'s not disobedience to not keep the Sabbath. The Sabbath is not necessary for salvation."
I guess this explains why Herb treated the Sabbath like any other day of the week. He would watch movies, Lakers basketball and Westerns, played cards and would wine and dine himself on that day too. While he enforced it on us as a matter of salvation. He really didn't believe it was. Thanks, Herb.

Herb's comments start at the 1:03 mark

published with permission, Facebook, MB

Has Church of God International Answered Bible Critics?

Has CGI Answered Bible Critics?

In the current issue of The International News(Vol. 40, No. 2), the Church of God International has presented an article that purports to answer Bible critics -- Answering Bible Critics   Lloyd Cary opens the article by expressing his hope that none of his readers believes that the Bible is full of contradictions (and most of them probably don’t). He then proceeds to acknowledge that some “uninformed Christians and sincere doubters question the authority of the Bible.”
According to Cary, there are a few characteristics that apply to most of these questioners: 1) They don’t actually read the Bible, 2) They’re prejudiced against the Bible and predisposed to find error within it, 3) They are inclined to dismiss the Bible when it conflicts with their views/opinions/lifestyle and 4) They don’t know God (if they did, they’d love HIS book).
Based on my own personal experiences within the Worldwide Church of God and then the Church of God International, I would have to say that Mr. Cary is wrong on all four counts! I have questioned some of the material in the Scriptures for many years now (going all the way back to my time in CGI); and I have also read, studied and continued to read and study the Bible extensively (and I know of many other questioners who have done likewise). And, neither I nor most of the rest of my fellow questioners began our journey with any prejudices against Scripture or predispositions to find error within it. Indeed, most of us were the same degree of Fundamentalist/Literalist that Mr. Cary appears to be at present!
Now, it is true that I began to question Scripture when I realized that some of the passages therein contradicted my own life experiences and training. Even so, my initial inclination was to dismiss my own experiences and training and attempt to prove that the Bible was correct. Moreover, even after I concluded that the Bible does contain errors and contradictions, I DID NOT (AND HAVE NOT) dismissed the Bible as irrelevant. Indeed, I continue to hold that book in high regard and still believe that it has the breath of Divine inspiration and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and instructing us in the ways of righteousness (and, once again, I am not alone in this conclusion).
Finally, as for the question of knowing God, if we are appealing to what is revealed in Scripture, I am very familiar with the same information that Mr. Cary has in his possession. As I think that it would be arrogant and unsupported by Scripture to do so, I will not say that I “know” God. If the Bible is to be believed, then we must admit that it is beyond the ability of our human minds to fully comprehend the extent of God’s greatness, personality and love – even with the addition of the Holy Spirit. And, just for the record, I do love the Bible.
Some of us, however, are willing to acknowledge that the Bible is the product of a joint venture between human and Divine, and that the human portion of that equation is quite capable of prejudice, error and contradiction – even with God’s help and direction! Many of us understand that the Bible was never intended by God to be a history or science textbook, and that God never intended for mankind to be forever trapped within the limitations of a Bronze Age understanding of themselves, the world they inhabit or the God they worship! For many of us, the Bible is a SPIRITUAL guide that serves to enrich and strengthen our faith and lead us toward salvation through Jesus Christ.
Mr. Cary, however, remains clearly in the inerrancy camp, and he leaves his readers with a number of suggestions for handling someone who confronts them with Bible errors and/or contradictions. Unfortunately, most of these suggestions are an exercise in circular reasoning. If you have decided beforehand that the Bible does not contain contradictions or errors, it is highly unlikely that you will find any of them in the book you are studying! And, if you ask your CGI minister for assistance with an apparent contradiction/error, it is highly unlikely that he will be inclined to confirm your suspicion that something is not quite right! And, if you’ve followed all of his suggestions and still have questions about an apparent contradiction/error, Cary asks his readers to trust that “God’s” Word is correct (even if you cannot figure it out).
Nice failsafe – the circular reasoning gets you right back to where you started: There is no contradiction/error, because it is impossible for one to exist! By the way, did I mention that I own a bridge in Brooklyn that I’d very much like to sell you?

submitted by Lonnie Hendricks

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Dave Pack: RCG Members Can't Hear!

The Most Humble Man In The World

The most humble servant of God getting out of his custom Rolls Royce with personalized vanity plates.  He was dropping in for tea with Prime Minister Thatcher to talk about a 
"strong hand from someplace."

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Gerald Flurry: Satan Disables New Jet, But God Intervenes So Elijah Can Fly

In the magical world of Armstorngismm, "God" is constantly intervening in church events in order for his modern-day emissaries to carry our their Elijah roles.  That god had to recently find Gerald Flurry a different plane to fly on. Geralds new jet had a malfunctioned and by God's mercy and thoughtfulness, Gerald did not have to fly on a commercial airliner next to the unwashed and disease-ridden masses but found him a charter jet. God is great!  Forget those starving children in Africa, or those that are being slaughtered in Syria and elsewhere, intervening for Gerald is a TOP priority.

From Exit and Support

June 13, 2019
Recently, Flurry's plane on its way to a "campaign" in Tampa, FL, had a malfunction in the motor operating the wing flaps so returned to Oklahoma City airport. They departed once again, but again had to return to Oklahoma City airport! Flurry was determined to get to Tampa to give his lecture no matter what. 
Well, "luckily" for Flurry, there just happened to be a small charter plane available at another airport close by, which was a much smaller jet. Flurry managed to give his lecture after it was postponed for half an hour.  
PCG claimed that miraculously the PCG pilots found the small charter plane which just happened to be available! If God was truly with the PCG, then they wouldn't have had the problems with the motor in their plane in the first place! 
I wish that the people who attend these lectures would first check out what the PCG is really all about, destroying families, no medicines, etc. -- Impacted by PCG

HWA: The ONLY Reason You Were Born

Words of wisdom from the great one...

Herbert Armstrong
Bricket Wood Sermon
May, 1974
From "Get Back on Track"
This is why so many of the Churches of God place more emphasis on "government" than they do Jesus. Being able to control every aspect of peoples is more valuable than leading people into grace.  Plus, it keeps them obedient to despotic leaders like Flurry, Weinland, and Pack. Sadly, some COG members think they need to be controlled and told what to do.  It is much easier and safer for them as they do not have to make theological decisions.

quote courtesy of SHT, comments mine

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Questions For the" Born-In the church": What's Your Story?

In the days of old, generations ago, many of us in the Worldwide Church of God were victims of a culture of conformity. A culture that refused to accept that differences and diversity, not just of personality, but of opinion. The expectation was of assimilation into the precise expectation defined specifically by Herbert Armstrong as to exactly what defined not only a Christian, but a human. Not only a father, but a king. Not only a leader, but a ruler. The definitions were intrinsic, the calculations exact. You were a Worldwide-er. And if you did not fit the mold, you certainly got told. And for those who did not assimilate, in no time you were shown the gate. 

Growing up in the Church, however - was a slightly different story. There was no gate. What there was, was a two-punch indoctrination - first, from your parents, and then, when you understood, from the Church in general. Once you entered into school, the contradictory information began to infiltrate your mind. Then, the counter-information to fight the contradictory information came forth from your father, mother, pastor, and church leaders. You were told that what the counter-informers said was wrong and from the dark side, even though it made sense. You were told that what the church and parents said was right, even though it was obviously - except for some elements - wrong. 

Yes, you knew the basics were common sense and made sense. The ten commandments - sure, those made sense. Respect and honor - yeah, that made sense. It was everything else that didn't make sense. 

We have to stop eating leavening for seven days. But yet, this seems to be leavened - doesn't it? 

We have to stop eating and drinking for twenty-four hours. What bad thing will happen if we do? 

We must avoid working from Sunset to Sunset on the Sabbath. But yet, we're all working, aren't we? 

We can't eat pork because it's an unclean food. Yet, my friends eat pork, and they're healthier than I am. What gives? 

We are commanded to go to tithe three tithes - yet we're dirt poor and impoverished, and can't live, while our ministers live high on the hog and the big guys out west live in luxury. Why don't they see this as a problem? 

And this isn't even scratching the surface on the questions of a young person in the Church. There were many more questions and not enough answers. The expectation of the young person in the Church was to simply answer any question with "Maybe I don't understand now, but someday I will." Or, "Perhaps I don't get it because I'm not baptized yet". Or, and I heard this from other youth lots of times... "This isn't for me, but I have no choice, but once I'm old enough, I'm out." 

There was a sizable portion of Church Kids - the Y.O.U., if you will - who never really bought into the game. They had no choice to attend or not to attend - they were going, and that was that and case closed. So they went. They attended sabbath services that were absolutely inappropriate for them. They went to the feast, they skipped school sports and activities - but internally, they felt angry and deprived - and in some cases, even robbed. Certainly, misunderstood, rejected, and a fish out of water from everyone else. The questions, such as those examples above - were never sufficiently answered. And what this caused was, for many, a mass rebellion of the youth and a slammed door shut on the church that they grew up with. But for these young people, the damage was done. 

The Church had attempted to do damage control with such programs as S.E.P., Y.O.U., Church sports programs, talent shows, youth trips, outings, Bible bowls, district weekends and the like - but did these really do the trick in retaining the youth of the Church? The answer is a resounding no for the majority. How many of the youth in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, out of the nearly 100,000 that were in the Church in and around that time - remain in Armstrongism now? Why didn't they stay?

Here's the question that I am posing specifically for those who grew up in the Worldwide Church of God, who were raised in the Church from birth, and are no longer: 1) In Armstrongism, 2) A Church-goer, or 3) Religious. Why did you leave? 
What was your rationale? What was the breaking point? and finally, where are you now? Do you have anything additional to add? What's YOUR story? Please use the comments to answer, I'm looking forward to your answers.

submitted by SHT

Monday, June 17, 2019

Jon Brisby Says There Is An Enduring Legacy of Herbert and Loma Armstrong

Several Church of God, The Eternal members have sent me notes about Jon Brisby's new book on the Armstrongs.  They are none too happy that he is making money off HWA and Loma's name.  Others claim he has turned into a tyrannical church leader like most of the other splinter group leaders.  Others claim he is more "grace" oriented, which is unusual in Armstrongism since so many despise grace and claim it is a license to "sin."

He has now written a book about Herbert and Loma Armstrong.  Check it out here:

A Peculiar Treasure: The Enduring Legacy of Herbert & Loma Armstrong

(From the back cover)

To many, Herbert W. Armstrong was a familiar and distinctive voice on nightly radio, but little more besides. To others he was the preeminent symbol of loathsome cults that threatened beloved Christian traditions. To yet others he was the catalyst for dramatic life change—changes that affected them in ways which, for better or for worse, could never be erased.

Many of those who were affected by his work in some way since the early 1930s are ashamed that they ever responded to his message at all. Others still hold loosely to some version of what they first learned through him. But some few continue in determined personal sacrifice to hold fast to that which they believe was not the work of any man at all, but of a purposeful Creator God.

Was he a powerfully inspired messenger of God in the twentieth century, or was he, perhaps, merely an opportunistic businessman making a living off of religion? Is there anything of value still left of that Work today? If so, what might it be?

(From the inside flap)

"Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people" (Exodus 19:5).

A woman's personal conviction to begin keeping the seventh-day Sabbath in 1926 would challenge her husband to begin an intensive study to prove her wrong. That study would spawn a new religious movement under Herbert W. Armstrong. A fledgling group would form in 1934, and an audacious media operation would make the Radio Church of God (later named the Worldwide Church of God) grow by 30% per year over the next 35 years. 

Proclaiming a unique understanding of the Bible, traditional Christian orthodoxy would be challenged, making that church most peculiar indeed. 

Internal and external forces would alter Herbert Armstrong's view of his own mission, and especially after Loma's death, doctrinal and administrative turmoil would stagger the church for the rest of his life. After his death in 1986, the empire would implode, and successors would dismantle everything that the Armstrongs had built.  

Was it all just a fantastic, fraudulent escapade—conceived by a lucky and opportunistic salesman—or might it have been a divine Work—God's own peculiar treasure? If it did begin with God's inspiration, why and how did it all go so wrong? Is there anything left of it today that has any redeeming value? These are the questions that will be answered, with evidence to suggest that there is yet an enduring legacy of Herbert and Loma Armstrong.

Church of God – the royalty free franchise business

With over 400 splits and splinters, the COGs have become one of the best franchises to own, especially when you consider there are no royalty fees and the marketing materials are free.

The owners have the advantages of running a pyramid style business where the benefits flow to the top tier without any fear of prosecution associated with the pyramid marketing model because it is run as a church. The other big advantage is the elimination of most business taxes because of non-profit and church taxation rules.

In the guise of church management and preaching, the owners get free travel, free cars, and tax reductions on their personal living costs.

There are several models:      
· Multiple congregations – collect money from each local group and send to HQ
· Single group – not as much money, but simpler lifestyle, plus can be run without added employee expense.
· Prophet model – need to claim some special revelation.
Marketing model is well established:
· Free literature (these days you can use pdfs which eliminates mailing costs).
· Threaten end of the world scenarios with only your followers escaping.
· When money gets tight, threaten followers with the lake of fire if they don’t send you more money.
· Claim 10% of all income, claim a portion of 2ndtithe, add a third tithe, plus 7 Holy Day offerings, plus special offerings, special project offerings, and building funds.
· Persuade people to leave you money in their wills.
If you go with the HQ model, you can have amazing perks like your own TV show, personal plane, and even your own university where the teachers can further indoctrinate your followers.

Biggest problem to overcome – since having “Church of God” in your business name is a requirement, with over 400 existing businesses in your franchise model, it is getting really difficult to come up with a unique name.

One suggestion is to use the city names used by the 7 churches in the book of Revelation.

Philadelphia is already taken, and no one wants to be called Sardis or Laodicean, but Ephesus and Thyatira are more positive names.

Otherwise you are left with adjectives like:
      · Continuing (taken – isn’t that amazing!!!)
· Bloviating
· Windy
· Sustaining
· Lasting
· Persevering
·     Loving – no forget this one – it just does not fit

submitted by TLA

Sunday, June 16, 2019

Herbert Armstrong's "Different Gospel"

Herbert Armstrong taught the following in a May 13, 1978 sermon:

And so it is. Adam had made his choice. In other words, Adam said to God in effect … And let me just paraphrase it in my own words. In effect, he said: “God, I want you to keep your nose out of my affairs. I will not accept you as my ruler. I reject you as my king, as my ruler. I reject you as my God for salvation. I reject you as a source of knowledge to tell me what is good and what is evil, and I will decide it myself.”

And God said, “Well, I’ve given you the choice.” Now, instead of choosing character, he chose the wrong way; and God allowed that. God has not going to force you to choose the right way. Adam was able to choose whatever he pleased, and so are we. But, if you make the wrong choice, you’ll never have the character of God. And God is able to take care of that too.

From then in effect, God said, “Okay. You have rejected me. You have said you will create your own knowledge. You rejected me as your ruler and my government over you. You have rejected me as a Savior and a God and as the source of knowledge. So now I sentence you and your children after you – THE WHOLE WORLD that will come (and we have all come from Adam) – to 6,000 years of being cutoff from ME. All except the few in the world that I will decide I need to call and choose to do something for me in my service. Them I will call. But otherwise, ALL HUMANITY will be cut off from me.”

Is THIS the truth according to scripture? Is this the message of the Gospel? Is this what the New Testament boldly proclaims? Is THIS the Gospel of reconciliation? 

The entire theme of the New Testament is what Jesus did for ALL of mankind. John 3:16 says God so loved the world, that whosoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have everlasting life. In Acts, we read how the Holy Spirit was poured out to not only Jew but Gentile. We read in Galatians that there in neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free - nor male or female - that all are one in Jesus Christ. We read in 2 Corinthians that God has reconciled the world to Himself through Christ. We read in Romans how we are no longer enemies to God but reconciled through Christ. 

Herbert's teaching that the Whole world - from Adam forward 6,000 years in his teaching (of which time we have now past, by the way), is cut off. ALL humanity. This is a doctrine that is the exact opposite of what the New Testament teaches. It is in exact opposition of what the Holy Spirit did when He came to not only Jew but Gentile. If Herbert's teaching was correct, then Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female is incorrect. If Herbert's teaching is correct, John 3:16 is woefully false. This teaching is contrary to the essential teachings of Paul, the decisions of the Apostles at the Jerusalem council, every missionary effort by Paul through the foreign lands of the Gentiles, every move of the Holy Spirit to Gentiles, every martyr of the founding fathers of Christianity, and the action of reconciliation of mankind to the Father through Christ. Herbert's teaching basically invalidates scripture after scripture of Good News for all of mankind. 

Herbert's "different Gospel" sideswipes what Christ did, what the Spirit has done and is doing, eliminates any reconciliation of the Gentiles, places bondage and restrictions on the Gentiles (which the Spirit and the Jerusalem Council outlawed, by the way!), reaffirms differences between Jew and Gentile in relation to Christ, and rejects any "Gentile" as defined in scripture as apostate because of their differences with Jewish/Mosaic Law. Herbert's teachings are pharisaical and are in absolute opposition with every teaching and effort that Paul had with great effort taught to the Gentile Church who accepted and believed in Jesus Christ. 

Herbert's teaching, along with the teachings of the Judaizers, was that observances of rituals and ceremonies and the Law was commanded and required for Christians. This very argument was resolved in the Jerusalem Council. The reality is, according to scripture, that the teachings of Herbert Armstrong - that man continues to be cut off from God - ALL of mankind - ALL of humanity - except for an infinitesimal few - is nothing less that absolutely ANTICHRIST, Anti-Spirit, Anti-New Testament, Anti-reconciliation, and anti-truth. It is the opposite of what the truth of the Gospel is - and what the Old Testament pointed to - that Jew and Gentile both have been accepted to God through the reconciliation of mankind through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ to the Father. The very fruits - and current status - of Armstrongism bear witness to the futility and result of going against what Jesus Christ Himself accomplished, and what the Spirit had done, is doing, and will continue to do through the Spirit of God through those - ALL those - whomever and wherever they may be - who believe - whether Jew, Gentile, Slave, Greek, Male, Female, American, British, Australian, African, or any other person on the face of this Earth who has heard and who has accepted and believes in Jesus Christ, Son of God, and for that, we give thanks.

Submitted by SHT