Wednesday, May 22, 2024

The Real and Better Sabbath


 
The Real and Better Sabbath


Herbert Armstrong (and others) taught that Christians were obligated to keep God's Sabbath. He also taught that the vast majority of Christians had rejected or abandoned God's Sabbath and had substituted a day of their own choosing (Sunday). Was he right? Have the vast majority of folks who claim to be Christian refused to obey God's commandment to keep the Sabbath holy? Why and how did God give the Sabbath to the Israelites? What was the Sabbath? Was the Sabbath part of God's covenant with the Israelites? And/or was it intended for all of humankind? Is it a part of the New Covenant through Jesus Christ? Did Christ and his original disciples keep the Sabbath? If so, doesn't that suggest that we should be following their example?

To answer these questions, we must employ the whole Bible - from beginning to end! Hence, in the first chapter of the book of Genesis, we are informed that God created the earth and its life in six days. Then, immediately following that event, we read: "Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God finished his work that he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work that he had done. So God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it God rested from all his work that he had done in creation." (Genesis 2:1-3, ESV) Thus, in this first scriptural reference to the Sabbath, we are told: 1. That God had finished his creative work and rested on the seventh day, and 2. That he pronounced a special blessing on the day and made it holy. So, these two points are the foundation of our attempt to understand the concept of the Sabbath and answer our questions.

Even so, this immediately brings to mind another question: Did God need a rest? The prophet Isaiah once stated that the Lord does NOT faint or grow weary (Isaiah 40:28). So, if God didn't need a rest, why did he take one? In other words, God must have had some other purpose in mind when he created this day. Does Scripture reveal what that purpose was?

Within the context of his disciples eating some grain as they walked through a field one Sabbath, Jesus Christ revealed that "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. So the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath." (Mark 2:27-28, ESV) According to Christ, the Sabbath was created for humankind, and that he was consequently the Lord of the Sabbath! Indeed, in his own observance of the day, Christ revealed that it was appropriate to perform good works on that day - to do things which benefited people! (See Matthew 12:1-12, Mark 3:1-6, Luke 6:1-11, 13:10-17, 14:1-6, and John 5:1-17) In another place, we are also informed that Jesus once said: "Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them." (Matthew 5:18, ESV) He went on to say that all of the Law and the Prophets would remain relevant until he had completed his task of fulfilling them (Matthew 5:18-19).

On yet another occasion, Jesus told the Jewish religious leaders of his day: "You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; and it is they that bear witness about me, yet you refuse to come to me that you may have life. I do not receive glory from people. But I know that you do not have the love of God within you. I have come in my Father's name, and you do not receive me. If another comes in his own name, you will receive him. How can you believe, when you receive glory from one another and do not seek the glory that comes from the only God? Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father. There is one who accuses you: Moses, on whom you have set your hope. For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote of me. But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe my words?" (John 5:39-47, ESV) Likewise, in the Gospel of Luke, we are informed that after he was resurrected, Christ told his disciples: "These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled." (Luke 24:22, ESV) So, according to Jesus, the Hebrew Scriptures (including the Sabbath) pointed to HIM!

We know too that Paul preached Jesus from the Law and the Prophets (Acts 24:14 and 28:23). Moreover, in his letter to the saints at Colosse, Paul told them that festivals, new moons, and sabbaths were shadows of the reality found in Christ (Colossians 2:16-17). This all provokes yet another question: Exactly how did the Sabbath point to Jesus?

Let's go back to Torah and see if it is plausible to see Christ in the Sabbath. The Sabbath was introduced to the children of Israel in the midst of God sending them manna - bread from heaven. In the book of Exodus, we read: "Then the Lord said to Moses, 'Behold, I am about to rain bread from heaven for you, and the people shall go out and gather a day's portion every day, that I may test them, whether they will walk in my law or not. On the sixth day, when they prepare what they bring in, it will be twice as much as they gather daily.'" (Exodus 16:4-5, ESV) Continuing in the account, we are informed that the Israelites eventually learned to follow God's instruction regarding the collection of manna relative to the Sabbath - that they eventually learned to rest on the Sabbath (Exodus 16:22-35)

In this connection, it is instructive to read of some remarks attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John. We read there that he said: "'Do not work for the food that perishes, but for the food that endures to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give to you. For on him God the Father has set his seal.' Then they said to him, 'What must we do, to be doing the works of God?' Jesus answered them, 'This is the work of God, that you believe in him whom he has sent.' So they said to him, 'Then what sign do you do, that we may see and believe you? What work do you perform? Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness; as it is written, 'He gave them bread from heaven to eat.' Jesus then said to them, 'Truly, truly, I say to you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is he who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.' They said to him, 'Sir, give us this bread always.' Jesus said to them, 'I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst.'" (John 6:27-35, ESV) So, according to Christ, he was the real bread from heaven, and the work required of his followers was to believe in the one whom God had sent to them! Also, of interest in this regard, is the fact that Christ later instituted the symbols of the Eucharist - the bread and the wine (which his followers would be required to ingest - see Matthew 26:26-29).

Returning again to Torah, we know that God later incorporated the Sabbath into one of the Ten Commandments he gave to Moses on Mount Sinai. We read there: "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your male servant, or your female servant, or your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy." (Exodus 20:8-11, ESV) Once again, God made very clear that the Sabbath was celebrated by NOT WORKING! He reminded them that he had finished his own work in six days and had rested on the seventh one. Now, how does that relate to Jesus Christ?

Before leaving Torah, let's return to a passage which I quoted in the post which immediately preceded this one. You remember, the one where God instructed the Israelites to "seek the place where the Lord your God chooses, out of all your tribes, to put His name for His dwelling place; and there you shall go." (Deuteronomy 12:5, ESV) Notice also in this same passage: "You shall not do according to all that we are doing here today, everyone doing whatever is right in his own eyes, for you have not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance that the Lord your God is giving you. But when you go over the Jordan and live in the land that the Lord your God is giving you to inherit, and when he gives you rest from all your enemies around, so that you live in safety, then to the place that the Lord your God will choose, to make his name dwell there, there you shall bring all that I command you." (Deuteronomy 12:8-11, ESV) So, we see that God clearly told the Israelites that a day was coming when God would make his choice clear to them, after he had given them REST and their inheritance, and that they would be required to attend him there - ONLY there!

In this connection, the New Testament makes very plain that a Christians inheritance is in and through Jesus Christ (John 3:16, Galatians 3:29, Romans 8:16-17, I Peter 1:3-5, Hebrews 9:15, etc.). Also, it is interesting to note in this regard what Christ is reported to have said in the Gospel of Matthew. We read there that he said: "Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart,and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light." (Matthew 11:28-30, ESV) Christ invited all who were working and loaded down with burdens to seek him, and he promised to give them REST!

Likewise, in the anonymous epistle to the Hebrews, we read: "Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, 'Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, on the day of testing in the wilderness, where your fathers put me to the test and saw my works for forty years. Therefore I was provoked with that generation, and said, ‘They always go astray in their heart; they have not known my ways.’ As I swore in my wrath, ‘They shall not enter my rest.' Take care, brothers, lest there be in any of you an evil, unbelieving heart, leading you to fall away from the living God. But exhort one another every day, as long as it is called 'today,' that none of you may be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin. For we have come to share in Christ, if indeed we hold our original confidence firm to the end." (Hebrews 3:7-14, ESV) Continuing in the account, the author made clear exactly who God had declared would NOT enter his rest: "who were those who heard and yet rebelled? Was it not all those who left Egypt led by Moses? And with whom was he provoked for forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose bodies fell in the wilderness? And to whom did he swear that they would not enter his rest, but to those who were disobedient? So we see that they were unable to enter because of unbelief." (Hebrews 3:16-19, ESV)

According to the author of this epistle, the children of Israel were not allowed to enter God's true rest! He continued: "Therefore, while the promise of entering his rest still stands, let us fear lest any of you should seem to have failed to reach it. For good news came to us just as to them, but the message they heard did not benefit them, because they were not united by faith with those who listened. For we who have believed enter that rest," (Hebrews 4:1-3, ESV) Don't think this has anything to do with the Sabbath? Continuing with the account, we read: "as he has said, 'As I swore in my wrath, ‘They shall not enter my rest,' although his works were finished from the foundation of the world. For he has somewhere spoken of the seventh day in this way: 'And God rested on the seventh day from all his works.' And again in this passage he said, 'They shall not enter my rest.' Since therefore it remains for some to enter it, and those who formerly received the good news failed to enter because of disobedience, again he appoints a certain day, 'Today,' saying through David so long afterward, in the words already quoted, 'Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts.' For if Joshua had given them rest, God would not have spoken of another day later on. So then, there remains a Sabbath rest for the people of God, for whoever has entered God's rest has also rested from his works as God did from his." (Hebrews 4:3-10, ESV) Then the writer goes on to warn Christians not to follow the example of those rebellious Israelites - to fail to enter God's rest (verse 11). Hence, the message is clear: Jesus is that ultimate rest!

This is, of course, in harmony with what Paul wrote to the saints at Rome. He said: "For by works of the law no human being will be justified in his sight, since through the law comes knowledge of sin. But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it— the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction: for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God's righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins. It was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus." (Romans 3:20-26, ESV) It is NOT through keeping the Sabbath that we will stand clean before God. It is clearly through Jesus Christ that we will do so, as Paul also made clear to the saints of Galatia. He wrote: "we know that a person is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, so we also have believed in Christ Jesus, in order to be justified by faith in Christ and not by works of the law, because by works of the law no one will be justified." (Galatians 2:16, ESV) Hence, for Christians, it is clear that Christ is the Sabbath which we celebrate!

Miller Jones/Lonnie C Hendrix





35 comments:

Anonymous said...

Well done Lonnie! I love these kind of posts that make people think.

Anonymous said...

You convocate every day?? Wow. Of course you can put the bed into the car (accompanying pic). Just torch a slot in the roof.

Anonymous said...

"You convocate every day??"

After all these years and people are still blind to the reality of resting in Christ. At this point, I think it is willful.

Anonymous said...

Food for thought.
Yes, Christ is indeed our hope and rest. In this age and in the one coming.
I do believe at His return Israel and the nations will also keep the seventh day of rest.
The day that points to our creator.
Some fine posts lately on this blog and thoughtful comments.
A little early, but Shabbat Shalom to everyone.

Anonymous said...

Your effort in doing the post is appreciated

RSK said...

"According to the author of this epistle, the children of Israel were not allowed to enter God's true rest!"

Well, no, that would be kind of hard for them to do in any sense, since they supposedly balked at the initial chance to take over Canaan and were sent to wander 40 years until that generation died out.

Kolchak said...

I always look forward to the day when even firemen, EMT ambulance personnel, snowplow drivers, D.O.T. highway employees, public utility workers labouring & supplying power to "Tomorrow's World TV show (Beyond Today/Key Of David)", ISS Space station staff, FOT cruise-ship 7-day-a-week-staff servicing relaxed feastgoers onboard, urgent-care clinicians staff, all-you-can-eat buffet staff in NC or OK or OH feeding/selling/serving sabbath patrons, etc. will all be offered specific "day of rest" time off too i.e. sabbath, etc.(whilst the church folk get served & waited on hand & foot that day each week).

Anonymous said...

Thanks for the post.

I agree when one reads Hebrews ch 4 it becomes surprising that some attempt to use it to argue that there is a physical demand requiring no work and no play on the sabbath day. Something you have well explained in the original post.

- In no part of Israel's history had the rest promise ever properly been fulfilled. Not at creation , or under Joshua. If Joshua had given them rest -" then would He (God or the Holy Spirit) not afterward have spoken of another day." Yet, they were sabbath ''observers''.

- So a “Sabbath rest” remains for the people of God. A believer who enters such rest has also rested (ceased) from his works.

- The writer stresses the word “today”. In the new covenant, one can enter into God’s rest “today.”

It is the death of Christ for the sinner that makes this rest possible. There is no evidence in Hebrews 4 whatsoever that this passage of Scripture requires Sabbath “keeping” by Christians.

But there are some who foolishly try to use it as a so called proof text, as part of their attempt to establish credentials to be keepers of something and in that process make their organization into a ''one true church''.

Anonymous said...

May 22 5:43 ''I always look forward to the day when even firemen, EMT ambulance personnel, snowplow drivers, D.O.T. highway employee..''
this is never going to happen because associated with an alleged sabbath keeping is the inherent self serving satisfaction that as one true church keepers they have a special status. The sabbath they say is the special sign they are in the only one true church, and all other believers they allege are deceived by Satan.

RSK said...

Of course, among the "children of Israel", a man was stoned to death for gathering wood on the Sabbath. For a bunch of people supposedly resting, they really couldnt mind their own business.

Byker Bob said...

Once AI and robotics come into their own and really take over, human labor on every day will be minimized, let alone the sabbath. Folks like me will still be working, because we will need to maintain all of that technology. Guess there's just no rest for the wicked, and the righteous don't need any!

Anonymous said...

I've often been amazed that of all of the commandments to resist, taking a day off is the one religious people choose to ignore.

Articles such as this prove John 6:44 beyond a shadow of any doubt.

Anonymous said...

It's not the sabbath so much as what is done with the sabbath by the WCG, the taught application. It is a day of forced indoctrination, one on which many members had to drive for hours to listen to the gloom and doom of failed prophecies, "fellowship" with people with which the only thing they had in common was the church, and subject one's self to evaluation and criticism. It was the point from which we looked down upon sincere, often more righteous Sunday-keeping Christians.

As I've noted before, you can actually make children hate ice cream, depending upon how you present it to them.

Miller Jones/Lonnie C Hendrix said...

"Articles such as this prove John 6:44 beyond a shadow of any doubt." Typical Amrstrongite reply, I you don't continue to see this my way, you obviously haven't been called by the Father. Sorry, but no one is trying to "resist" any commandments here. The thesis of the article is that Christ is the Sabbath rest of Christians. And, although we are NOT required to observe the tenets of the Old Covenant, there is nothing wrong with a Christian who chooses to do so. As I have stated in numerous comments and posts on this topic, I continue to personally observe the Sabbath (as I have done for almost fifty years now). I am, however, under no illusions that doing so makes me any better than my brethren who worship on Sunday, or that by doing so, I have a place reserved in God's Kingdom.

Anonymous said...

@8:06, this exactly.

Miller Jones/Lonnie C Hendrix said...

Typo - "IF you don't..."

This post underscores how Armstrongism handles what cannot be refuted - Radio silence!

Anonymous said...

....another Jesus.....

Anonymous said...

Jesus spent His life giving others rest, not “taking a day off” as you say. If you want to sabbath like Jesus, then go do the work that He did and don’t turn a blind eye toward the needy, ever. No matter what day it is. If you turn away from the world because you are more special and don’t have to help anyone, you aren’t following Jesus.

Anonymous said...

"...Christ is the Sabbath rest of Christians..."

What does that even mean? It's just another of those vague statements that everyone will interpret to suit themselves. "Christ is my rest" while ignoring God's instruction to assemble before Him. I guess that's why it's called confusion.

RSK said...

I actually sympathize somewhat with you there, 6:21. Church people often have these little cutesy codephrases that mean something important to them, but to the rest of us it's not always clear what they are babbling on about. (Yes, I realize the phrase in question is based on Hebrews)

Anonymous said...

The snapshot is a little tame for "We Got to do Better!"

Anonymous said...

Sabbath-Rest

Heb 4:9 Consequently, there remains a Sabbath-rest [sabbatismos] for the people of God (NASB).

From the context of Hebrews the sabbatismos is yet future.

Heb 4:1 Therefore, since THE PROMISE OF ENTERING HIS REST STILL STANDS, let us be careful that none of you be found to have fallen short of it.

Heb 4:8 For if Joshua had given them rest, God would not have spoken later about another day.
Heb 4:9 THERE REMAINS, then, a Sabbath-rest for the people of God;

Heb 4:10 For he that is entered into his rest [katapausis], he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his.
Heb 4:11 Let us, therefore, make every effort to enter that rest, so that no one will fall by following their example of disobedience.

"The rest which is RESERVED for the people of God is properly called a "sabbath rest" - a sabbatismos or "sabbath keeping"... the meaning is brought out clearly in the NEB rendering: "Therefore, a sabbath rest STILL AWAITS the people of God...

Phil 3:20a But our citizenship is in heaven.
2Ti 4:18a The Lord ... will bring me safely to his heavenly kingdom.... (NIV).

Heb 11:10 For he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God.
Heb 11:16 But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city.

"What then is this sabbath rest which AWAITS them? It is evidently an experience which they do not enjoy in their present mortal life, although it belongs to them as a heritage, and by faith they may live in the good of it here and now. How they may do so is illustrated with a wealth of biographical details in ch. 11. And in that chapter we have further references to the eternal homeland which is the heritage of believers, the saints' everlasting rest - the "better country, that is, a heavenly one" which they desire, the "city" which God has prepared for them, the well-founded city of which he is both architect and builder (11:10, 16)" (F.F Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews, Revised, NICNT, pp.109-110).

Heb 4:6 Seeing THEREFORE it remaineth that some must enter therein, and they to whom it was first preached entered not in because of unbelief:

Heb 4:9 There remaineth THEREFORE a rest [sabbatismos] to the people of God.

"In v9 the writer repeats the conclusion of v.6a, but the term sabbatismos is substituted for the characteristic term katapausis. The formal parallelism suggests that the substitution is meant to define more precisely the character of the future rest promised to the people of God (Hofius, Katapausis, 106). If it had been the writer's intention to say only "there remains a Sabbath rest for the people of God" (cf. RSV, NEB, NIV), he could have retained the word katapausis. In v4 he had associated katapausis with God's rest on the seventh day, and he undoubtedly knew that the word was used for the Sabbath rest in the LXX (Exod 35:2; 2 Macc 15:1). The deliberate choice of sabbatismos, which finds its earliest occurrence in extant Greek literature here, must have been dictated by the fact that it contains a nuance not found in katapausis.

2 Macc 8:27 So when they had gathered their armour together, and spoiled their enemies, they occupied themselves about the sabbath, yielding exceeding praise and thanks to the Lord, who had preserved them unto that day, which was the beginning of mercy distilling upon them

"The term sabbatismos appears to have been coined from the cognate verb sabbatizein, "to observe/celebrate the Sabbath." In its only occurrence in non-Christian literature ... the term signifies Sabbath observance... The term received its particular nuance from the Sabbath instruction that developed in Judaism on the basis of Exod 20:8-10, where it was emphasized that REST AND PRAISE belong together (cf. 2 Macc 8:27...). The term sabbatismos stresses the special aspect of festivity and joy, expressed in the adoration and praise of God...

Anonymous said...

Part 2

“In v9 this nuance defines the character of the promised rest awaiting the people of God in the consummation" (William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, WBC, pp.101-02).

Rev 7:14 And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
Rev 7:15 Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple: and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among them.
Rev 7:16 They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more; neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat.
Rev 7:17 For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes.

"The assertion in v10 stands in a casual relationship to v9 and clarifies why in the eschatological rest a sabbatismos will be possible. Whoever has entered the consummation-rest will experience the completion of his work, as did God after the creation (cvv3c-4), and will enjoy the rest that is necessary for the festival of praise of a Sabbath celebration. In conjunction, vv 9-10 anticipate the festival of the priestly people of God in the heavenly sanctuary, celebrating in the presence of God the eternal Sabbath with unceasing praise and adoration (Hofius, Katapausis, 109-10)" (William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, WBC, p.102).

Heb 4:3 We who have believed are entering that rest, (ISV).

Ps 95:7 For he is our God; and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand. Today if ye will hear his voice,
Ps 95:8 Harden not your heart, as in the provocation, and as in the day of temptation in the wilderness:

“The journey of the wilderness generation is over. “They could not enter in” (3:19) is the conclusion of their story. “Our” journey, however, is in progress. “We are in the process pf entering that rest.” It is for this reason that the pastor urges perseverance...

“The present continuous action fits naturally in the context of the passage... Mitchell, 97, achieves the same effect by calling this verb an “ingressive” present, indicating “a present state that will be completed at a future time.” As deSilva, 155, has pointed out, those who insist that “we are entering” affirms present entrance treat this verb as perfective. Furthermore, the palmist says nothing about entering God’s rest “today”; rather, “today” is the time for obedience, the time when one must not “harden” one’s heart...” (Gareth Lee Cockerill, The Epistel to the Hebrews, NICNT, p.205).

Gen 2:2  And God finished on the sixth day his works which he made, and he rested [katapau√≥] on the seventh day from all his works which he made.
Psa 95:11 So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest [katapausis]. (LXX, Brenton

“By this word association between the two texts, Psalm 95:11 and Genesis 2:2-3 (a method common in rabbinic writings, known as gezers shawa, our author has imaginatively broadened the discussion and raised the stakes. The “rest” he is talking about it not a mere cessation from trouble in an earthly paradise but a sharing in the eternal rest of God himself, which began when creation was finished and will never end.... It is this heavenly Sabbath which beckons to his Christian readers as the outcome of their belief and which they risk losing if they do not continue firm in that faith” (R.T. France, Hebrews, EBC rev. ed., Vol.13 p.66).

"The concept of katapausis, "rest," in the context of the promise to the Exodus generation had the local connotation of entrance into Canaan, where Israel would experience relief from turmoil and security from their enemies (cf. Deut 12:9-10). BUT OVER THE COURSE OF TIME a distinctive eschatological concept of rest developed..." (William L. Lane, Hebrews 1-8, WBC, p.98).

BP8 said...

Though not mutually exclusive, I see merit in both concepts of "rest", as well as pitfalls.

I've relayed before my experiences working with a young 7th day Adventist. One Friday we took a lunch break at a location overlooking a beautiful lake. He was lamenting how he wished he had time to go fishing and enjoy such a peaceful scene. Knowing how he would react, I asked him, 'why not go tomorrow'? His response, OH NO, NOT ON THE SABBATH DAY, THAT'S THE DAY FOR CHURCH!

This illustrates how everyone has their own idea on how Sabbath rest works. Whether it be a physical 7th day rest, or rest in Christ (Matthew 11), both have scriptural evidence, yet both have the potential for abuse.

Romans 10:2-3 talks about having a zeal for God but not according to knowledge. The problem is "being ignorant of God's righteousness and going about to establish one's own righteousness, which is not submitting to the righteousness of God".

Whether it be going to church (806 mentions forced indoctrination), or helping the poor (mentioned by 1236), both can become if not careful a form of manufactured (self) righteousness, which is not God's intent.

We all know how the Pharisees made the sabbath a burden, but how about helping the poor? Do we have a handbook for that? I don't believe the Good Samaritan was walking down the street looking for someone to help. The situation arose and he stepped up. He did what he did for the right reasons.

The Pharisees wouldn't approve, but I personally have no problem going to the lake on the sabbath day, OR to church if that's what I want to do. Or I can make a trip downtown and help the homeless. Either way, I get to choose, and know I'm doing it for the right reasons, and not manufacturing situations that score points with God. I would call that "resting" in Christ.

Anonymous said...

My ex wife had friend at work who was an SDA. She picked up on a little hypocrisy on the part of her friend. If the bosses called for overtime on Saturday, the gal would say "Oh, I can't work on Saturday, it's my Sabbath." But then on other occasions, she'd brag to my wife all about how her boyfriend would sneak in through her bedroom window at night, and what he would do to her sexually.

Anonymous said...

In 2023 oscam wrote:

"Jesus never commanded Christians to keep the Sabbath and for good reason. He is our Sabbath rest. "Come to me all you who are weary and find life burdensome, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon your shoulders and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble of heart. Your souls will find rest, for my yoke is easy and my burden light" (Matthew 11:28-30).

My reply:

You use Matt 11:28-30 as a proof text for not keeping the Sabbath. I would argue that the context, in which 11:28-30 is used, actually supports the keeping of the Sabbath as a day of rest.

Mt 11:25 AT THAT TIME JESUS answered and said,

Mt 11:28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest [anapauo].
Mt 11:29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.
Mt 11:30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

Mt 12:1 AT THAT TIME JESUS went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungered, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat.

Mt 12:2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day.
Mt 12:7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless.
Mt 12:8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day.

Mt 12:12b it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days.

"The chapter division is unfortunate, since 12:1 does not begin a new section. The opening words ... binds this unit to the preceding text. The theme of conflict, which dominates 11:20-12:14, continues in this section, as well as the themes of rest/sabbath..." (M. Eugene Boring, Matthew, NIB, Vol.8, p.276

"At that time" need not mean the same day as the events of chapter 11 but "at about that time"... Here it introduces an EXAMPLE of burdensome Pharisaic regulation (arising out of 11:28-30)..." (D.A. Carson, Matthew, EBC, Vol.8, p.279).

"Matthew here refers to the sabbath for the first time, gathering all his sabbath material into this one story.

"... the two scenes in 12:1-14, as rewritten by Matthew, should be seen as picturing Jesus' participation in this Jewish debate as to the proper observance of the sabbath, not as a Christian rejection of "Jewish legalism." Matthew has taken care to rewrite the stories to emphasize that his position is not a rejection of the Law or the sabbath as such. He does not dismiss the issue, but enters into a debate still going on in Judaism. It is clear that Matthew does not pit the ceremonial law against the moral law (see 5:17-48) and that there is no polemic against the sabbath or the Law as such, nor is the sabbath denigrated as mere ceremonial ritual" (M. Eugene Boring, Matthew, NIB, Vol.8, pp.277-278).

Mt 11:28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest [anapauo].
Deu 5:14  but on the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: thou shalt do in it no work ... that thy man-servant may rest [anapauo], and thy maid, and thine ox, as well as thou. (Brenton, LXX).

"These two stories are both concerned with the keeping of the sabbath... It is probably not accidental that it follows the offer of "rest" in 11:28-30, since "rest" was the declared aim of the sabbath law (Exod 23:12; Dt 5:14). Jesus' arguments attempt to restore the "rest" to what was in danger of becoming, under the weight of scribal elaborations of the law, more a burden than a blessing...

"At that time" links these stories... Both the theme of rest ... and that of Jesus' "kind yoke" in contrast with the burdens of scribal demands (23:4) will be illustrated as Jesus' understanding of the sabbath is contrasted with that of the Pharisees - note especially "the mercy" of v.7" (R.T. France, The Gospel of Matthew, NICNT, pp.454-455 & 457).

Anonymous said...

16Now because Jesus was doing these things on the Sabbath, the Jews began to persecute Him. 17But Jesus answered them, “To this very day My Father is at His work, and I too am working.”

Jesus says here that He is working. This was intentional language. While speaking on the sabbath, Jesus is saying that He is working.

What does that fully mean? One thing for sure is that He is not adding reverence to the Sabbath here.

BP8 said...

118
You say Christ is not adding reverence to the sabbath because He's working?

I disagree. Think about it. In John 5, Jesus performs a healing and is accused because it is done on the sabbath. His response:

"my Father works and I work". What kind of work, laying bricks? No, works of righteousness and redemption, helping His fellow man.

In Matthew 12:10-12, the question is asked and answered: " Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days"?

The answer. . .YES, "it is lawful to do well on the sabbath".

In Matthew 12:5, Christ points out how the priests perform their works of service on the sabbath and are blameless.

Considering everything said, I believe Christ is absolutely adding reverence to the sabbath by defining how New testament Christians should approach it.

Anonymous said...

Does God break the Sabbath?

Mt 12:5 Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless?

“The Pharisees address Jesus rather than his disciples because it is understood that a teacher is responsible for his disciples’ behavior, and his reply will accordingly focus on his own authority, not theirs...

“It is not stated what specific “violation of the sabbath” is in view here, but the regular duties of the priests serving in the temple involved them in what for others would have been classed as “work,” particularly in the offering of sacrifices, with all the preparation and butchery involved (Num 28:9-10), and the changing of the ceremonial loaves (Lev 24:5-8). Their “guiltlessness” does not need to be argued in the law: the mere fact that the law requires these actions indicate that they are in accordance with God’s will. The basis for the exception is in who they are (the priests, appointed for this divine service) and the institution which requires it (the temple, as the focal point of God’s presence among his people). It is a matter of priorities, the authority of the office and the necessity of the service overriding the sabbath rules which for other people and other purposes remain inviolable” (R. T. France, Matthew, NICNT, pp.457-460).

“But how does this apply to Jesus and his disciples? The form of the argument is qal wahomer (lit. “the light and the weighty,” an a fortiori argument ... a recognized procedure for establishing Halakic regulation... But this is only valid if the “one greater that the temple (v.6) is truly greater... the comparison in the text is not with the service of the temple but with the temple itself... “something greater than the temple is here. And that too takes precedence over the sabbath...” ( Michael J. Wilkins, Matthew, NIVAC, pp.281-82)

Mt 12:6 But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple.

“Jesus presses the point by giving his rationale.... Using typical rabbinic logic, Jesus emphasizes that if the guardians of the temple were allowed to violate the Sabbath for the greater good of conducting the priestly rituals, how much more should Jesus and his disciples be considered guiltless when doing the work of God given to them. After all, he is someone greater than the temple... The word [“greater’] points to either the ministry of Jesus and his disciples in proclaiming the arrival of the kingdom of heaven, to Jesus himself, or to a combination of both. The following comments that focus on Jesus’ Christological status seem to indicate that “greater” refers to Jesus himself, but focuses on the quality of superior greatness in his ministry more than his personal identity” (D. A. Carson. Matthew, EBC, Vol. pp.440-41).

“The authority of the temple laws shielded the priests from guilt; the authority of Jesus shields his disciples from guilt. It is not a matter of comparing Jesus’ action with the action of the priests; nor is it likely that Jesus is suggesting that all his disciples are priests... “Rather, it is a question of contrasting [new emphasis] His authority with the authority of priests” (Carson, “Sabbath,” p.67)” (D. A. Carson. Matthew, EBC, Vol. pp.441).

Jn 7:21 Jesus answered and said unto them, I have done one WORK, and ye all marvel.
Jn 7:22 Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision ... and ye on the sabbath day circumcise a man.
Jn 7:23 If a man on the sabbath day receive circumcision, that the law of Moses should not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I have made a man every whit whole on the sabbath day?

“In the Gospels Jesus is represented as replying in several ways to the charge that he or his disciples are guilty of breaking the Sabbath.

Anonymous said...

Part 2

“Most of his answers are based on logic and or practical considerations (e.g., John 7:22-23; Mark 2:25-27; 3:4; Matt 12:3-7, 11-12; Luke 13:15-16; 14:5), but at least one focuses on the person of Jesus himself: “So the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath” (Mark 2:18 and parallels).

Jn 5:17 But Jesus answered them, My Father worketh hitherto, and I work.

“His answer in John 5:17 belongs in the latter category: My Father is always at his work to this very day, and I, too am working. The background of this pronouncement lies in certain debates among Jewish rabbis and philosophers over the meaning of the biblical statement that God rested on the seventh day (Gen 2:2-3; cf. Exod 20:11). Their conclusion was that God did not actually stop working after six days, for if he had, the world would have ceased to exist. Instead, he simply ended his work of creation and began his work of sustaining and watching over the world (see, e.g., Philo, Allegory of the Laws I. 5f). In this sense, God breaks the Sabbath. Building on this conclusion, Jesus argues that if God (whom he calls his Father) is still at work, it is appropriate and necessary that he also should work, even on the Sabbath. Jesus’ assumption is that his works are the works of God (cf. 4:34)” (J. Ramsey Michaels, John, NIBC,p.87).

“... God is at work, constantly, giving and sustaining life, rewarding the righteous and punishing the wicked" (J. Ramsey Michaels, The Gospel of John, NICNT, p.301).

“Moreover, God continues to exert his prerogative over life and death since people die and children are born on the Sabbath. Jesus’ claim fits perfectly here: He is God’s Son, and as such, if God (who made the Sabbath) can continue to work positively while commanding rest, and if Jesus’ works are the works of God, then Jesus’ works on the Sabbath are defensible” (Gary M. Burge, John, NIVAC, p.176).

“Jesus could then say that, just as the Father worked on the Sabbath in providential care of the universe as well in other ways, so too he, Jesus worked on the Sabbath to care for and redeem those affected by sin. More than that, the Father worked in and through what Jesus did (10:32, 37; 14:10)” (Colin G. Kruse, John, rev. TOTC, p.172).

Jn 5:18a Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath,

Mk 3:4 And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill? But they held their peace.

“The verb “break” ... could imply that Jesus did away with, or abolished the Sabbath (see BDAG, 607). Yet the notice simply reinforces what was said in verse 16 (that Jesus “did such things” on the Sabbath). To the Jewish authorities this may have tantamount to abolishing the Sabbath, yet they would also have assumed that one cannot “abolish” an ordinance of God, only violate it. Jesus will later be charged not with abolishing the Sabbath, but simply not keeping it” ( ... 9:16). As for the Gospel writer, what is said here must be read in light of what Jesus say elsewhere, that one legitimately keeps the Sabbath by healing or doing good (see 7:23; also Mk 3:4; Lk 13:16; 14:3)” (J. Ramsey Michaels, The Gospel of John, NICNT, p.303).

BP8 said...

Multipart man at 244 and 316

Another great exegesis on the subject of the sabbath and rebuttal of the main post.

I have issues with a theology that can wipe out 2/3 of the Lord's teaching and example only because they occurred under the time frame of the old covenant. It ignors the fact that Jesus was the messenger of the new covenant and He fulfilled the law by walking in newness of spirit, and not merely the letter (Romans 8:4, 7:6).

Christ's teachings about the sabbath day paralleled those on murder and adultery in that all are raised to the highest level of spirituality and intent. You know, new covenant stuff!

Anonymous said...

Thanks BP8 for your endorsement. I agree with what you note.

"The spiritual crisis as Luke sees it is the possible loss of a distinctly Jewish memory without which the church cannot be the church..." (Robert W. Wall, The Acts of the Apostles, NIB, Vol.10, p.214).

Lev 23:11 And he shall elevate [henip] the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall elevate it.

I find it somewhat perplexing that Sunday-keepers can have such insights but still keep Sunday. While I can understand this in that Jesus fulfilled firstfruit typology by being resurrected on a Sunday and that one has been brought up and lived in a in a Sunday-observing milieu, it doesn’t make it right.

In regard to insights, Phillip Peter Jenson, a former Anglican Archbishop of Sydney, Australia, authored a book entitled “Graded Holiness - A Key to the Priestly Conception of the World - this was a partial revision of his doctoral dissertation.

In chapter 7, “The Dimension of Time” he wrote the following, which may be of interest:

(English transliterations have been substituted for Hebrew - Peter Jenson employs only consonants - does not include Massoretic vowel points; all footnotes have been left out. But an example of part of a footnote: “Israel knows by revelation that keeping the Sabbath is a fundamental aspect of the world as God created it” (p.194).

“7.3.1 The Sabbatical Principle

“The festivals [moedim] and other rituals are marked by the repeated appearance of the number seven. When the number itself does not occur, it is implied by the Sabbath root [sbt], or by a sevenfold pattern or literary structure. Its recurrence in a wide variety of different contexts helps to unify the Priestly system of rituals and festivals, as is illustrated by the following list.

“Day

“a. The seven day (hsby‘y bywm Gen 2:2-3; Exod 31:15, 17; Lev 23:3) was a special day of rest. Also known as the Sabbath (sbt, Exod 31:16; Lev 23.8).

“b. The 7th day was marked by additional sacrifices (Num 28:9-10).

“c. 7 days were marked by compulsory cessation from work (Lev 23:7, 8, 21, 25, 28-31, 35, 36; see Appendix 3).

“d. The two most important festivals [mo’edim] were 7 days long (Unleavened Bread Lev 23:6-8; Booths v.36).

“e. The 7th day of the festival of Unleavened bread was a special festival day (Lev 23:8 cf. Deut 16:8, where it is called an ‘srt).

“f. The 6 x 2 (= 12) loaves on the Table were replaced every Sabbath (Lev 24.8).

“Month

“a. The 7th month had the greatest number of festivals [mo’edim], as well as the most important ones.

“b. The first day of the 7th month was the only New Moon festival with a special ritual (Lev 23:23-25) and additional sacrifices (Num 29:1-6).

“Year

“a There were 7 major festivals [mo’edim] in the year (Lev 23; Num 28-29).

“b. 7 weeks (beginning the day after the Sabbath) separated the waving of the sheaf from the festival of Weeks (Lev 23:15-16).

“c. 7 lambs were frequently sacrificed at a festival [mo‘ed].

“d. At booths 14 (twice 7) bulls were sacrificed, diminishing to 7 on the seventh day (Num 29.12-34), and the total number of bulls sacrificed over the 7 days was 70.

[My note: in the NC the number of bulls sacrificed over the seven days of UB and Booths will be 49 for each festival = seven per day, see Ezekiel 45:23 & 25].

Anonymous said...

Part 2

“Longer periods

“The 7th year had a special festival character (Lev 25:2-7); cf. Exod 21:2-6; Deut 15:1-18).

“The 49th year (7X7; ‘7 sabbaths of years’ (Lev 25:8 had a special name (the Jubilee), was an important social and cultic event, and began in the 7th month (Lev 25:8.55).

[My note: the Jubilee year is the first year of the following 49 year cycle - compare Pentecost falling on the first day of the following seven day cycle].

“Occasional and Other Rituals

“a. The time for testing whether a person, a garment or a house was diseased was 7 days (Lev 13:5, etc; 14:38).

“b. A person healed from skin disease was sprinkled 7 times with blood (Lev 14:7; also for a house v.51), waited 7 days (v.8) and then sprinkled 7 times with oil (vv.15, 27).

c. Purification from a major impurity took 7 days (5.4.2, 6.3, Appendix 2).

“d. There was a 7 day wait before circumcision on the eighth day (lev 12:2).

“e. The ordination of priests took 7 days (Exod (Exod 29:35, 37 = Lev 8:33-35).

“f. The rite for the major blood ritual ... including a 7 fold sprinkling of the blood before the veil (Lev 4:6, 17).

“g. The altar was consecrated by sprinkling it 7 times with the anointing oil (Lev 8:11).

“The seventh day of the week, the Sabbath had a special importance, and was the holy day par excellence. In Israel the regular repetition of the seven day cycle of the week, independent of any natural periodic cycle, was a central feature of its perception of time. It headed the list of appointed times in Leviticus 23 (v.3), and was the only law concerning the dimension of time in the decalogue (Exod 20:8-11). In the Priestly tradition, the motive for keeping the Sabbath is traced back to the rest of God at the conclusion of creation (Exod 20:11); 31:17; Gen 2:1-3). It stands outside the ordering of time based on the sun and moon (Gen 1:14).

“Although a regular seven day cycle was specific to Israel, the seven day period for a festival or other ritual was common in the Semitic world. It is attractive to suggest that seven has become a symbol of holiness in the dimension of time (cf. 4.3.2). The special significance of the Sabbath as a holy seventh day in Israel reinforces the association, and the number seven unifies the occasional rituals and the regular ones. It is appropriate that the liturgical calendar in Leviticus 23 is headed by the Sabbath, which is described in the same way as the other festival as a holy proclamation (qds mqr’, Lev 23:3). The major festivals days are also called sabbaton (sbtwn), probably a derived form of ‘Sabbath,’ [my note: “on” attached to sbt is the diminutive, cp. book and booklet - sbtwn are not as holy as sbt], which is further strengthened by the double appearance of the root in the phrase sabbath sabbaton (sbt sbtwn) [my note: for days, only 7th day and Atonement are called sbt sbtwn].

“The Sabbath was perceived to be a crucial feature of God’s special covenant with Israel, and the sabbatarian pattern is integrated into the Priestly understanding of the calendar and society to a remarkable degree. The importance of the Sabbath is such that it is possible to speak of a ‘sabbatical principle’.

[Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary: I am the LORD (Leviticus 26:2, AV).

"The Temple is to space what the Sabbath is to time..." (Jon D. Levenson, The Temple and the World, The Journal Of Religion 64, No.3 (July, 1984), p.298)].

Anonymous said...

Part 3

“7.3.2 The Sabbath

“The Sabbath does not have the significance in the cult that might be expected for a holy day. While the additional sacrifices acknowledges the Sabbath’s distinctiveness, they are relatively small (two lambs as an ‘ola) compared to those on the New Moon (a bull [should be two bulls], a ram, and seven lambs), which was also marked by a refrain from work. Yet the Sabbath is frequently called holy (qds, Exod 16:23; 31:15, 15; 35:2) and was to be sanctified (piel qds; by God: gen 2:3; Exod 20:11; 31:13; Lev 23:2; by Israel (Exod 20:8 = Deut 5:12; cf. Lev 25:10 of the Jubilee), whereas the New Moon is not. In the other Sabbath ritual recorded, the replacement of the loaves of bread in the sanctuary every week (Lev 24:8; cf. 7.1.2), the Sabbath is primarily a time marker.

“This suggest that the holiness is of a general kind, not dependent on specific cultic actions or personnel (cf. 2.2.3). The redactional insertion of the Sabbath commandment in Exod 31:12-17 stresses that the observance of the Sabbath takes precedence even over building the Tabernacle. In accord with this, it is traced back to creation, when God sanctified the seventh day (Gen 2.3).

“It was also, like the Passover, an institution rooted in the events before Sinai (Exod 16). Both were celebrated by Israel in their homes and were essential aspects of being the people of God. The Sabbath was hence appropriately called the sign of the (Sinaitic) covenant. Any desecration (piel of hll) of its holiness resulted in the death penalty (Exod 31:14; cf. Num 15:32-36; cf. Eze 20:16, 24). The Sabbath could be kept at home, even by those who were cultically unclean. Although little information is given about how the Sabbath was to be observed positively, its most important feature was that no work is to be carried out during it, a secular rather than a cultic criterion.

“The general and non-cultic character of holy times arises perhaps because time cannot be easily aligned with a grade in the spatial or personal dimension. Every Israelite and every place experienced the same passing of time, and a holy occasion would be holy for all, not just the priests and the sanctuary. If holiness is a mark of the presence of God, then the general character of the Sabbath indicates that God dwells in the midst of his people on this day to a special degree. The command not to work stressed that Yahweh and not the earth or Israel’s efforts is the source of blessing and joy.

“These themes recur in the laws for the sabbatical year (Lev 25;1-7) and the Jubilee (Lev 25:8-55; 27:16-25; Num 36:4). No work was to be performed, and the enjoyment of the Sabbath by the people of God without distinction was mirrored in the proclamation of freedom to Hebrew debtors and slaves in the Sabbath year. At the Jubilee the land returned to the original owner and no work was performed for an additional period. The demands of these years developed the economic implications already present in the command not to work on the Sabbath. The levelling of economic and hierarchal inequalities stressed the unity of Israel and the absolute sovereignty of Yahweh over all” (Philip Peter Jenson, Graded Holiness - A Key to the Priestly Conception of the World, pp.192-97).

Anonymous said...

Part 3

“7.3.2 The Sabbath

“The Sabbath does not have the significance in the cult that might be expected for a holy day. While the additional sacrifices acknowledges the Sabbath’s distinctiveness, they are relatively small (two lambs as an ‘ola) compared to those on the New Moon (a bull [should be two bulls], a ram, and seven lambs), which was also marked by a refrain from work. Yet the Sabbath is frequently called holy (qds, Exod 16:23; 31:15, 15; 35:2) and was to be sanctified (piel qds; by God: gen 2:3; Exod 20:11; 31:13; Lev 23:2; by Israel (Exod 20:8 = Deut 5:12; cf. Lev 25:10 of the Jubilee), whereas the New Moon is not. In the other Sabbath ritual recorded, the replacement of the loaves of bread in the sanctuary every week (Lev 24:8; cf. 7.1.2), the Sabbath is primarily a time marker.

“This suggest that the holiness is of a general kind, not dependent on specific cultic actions or personnel (cf. 2.2.3). The redactional insertion of the Sabbath commandment in Exod 31:12-17 stresses that the observance of the Sabbath takes precedence even over building the Tabernacle. In accord with this, it is traced back to creation, when God sanctified the seventh day (Gen 2.3).

“It was also, like the Passover, an institution rooted in the events before Sinai (Exod 16). Both were celebrated by Israel in their homes and were essential aspects of being the people of God. The Sabbath was hence appropriately called the sign of the (Sinaitic) covenant. Any desecration (piel of hll) of its holiness resulted in the death penalty (Exod 31:14; cf. Num 15:32-36; cf. Eze 20:16, 24). The Sabbath could be kept at home, even by those who were cultically unclean. Although little information is given about how the Sabbath was to be observed positively, its most important feature was that no work is to be carried out during it, a secular rather than a cultic criterion.

“The general and non-cultic character of holy times arises perhaps because time cannot be easily aligned with a grade in the spatial or personal dimension. Every Israelite and every place experienced the same passing of time, and a holy occasion would be holy for all, not just the priests and the sanctuary. If holiness is a mark of the presence of God, then the general character of the Sabbath indicates that God dwells in the midst of his people on this day to a special degree. The command not to work stressed that Yahweh and not the earth or Israel’s efforts is the source of blessing and joy.

“These themes recur in the laws for the sabbatical year (Lev 25;1-7) and the Jubilee (Lev 25:8-55; 27:16-25; Num 36:4). No work was to be performed, and the enjoyment of the Sabbath by the people of God without distinction was mirrored in the proclamation of freedom to Hebrew debtors and slaves in the Sabbath year. At the Jubilee the land returned to the original owner and no work was performed for an additional period. The demands of these years developed the economic implications already present in the command not to work on the Sabbath. The levelling of economic and hierarchal inequalities stressed the unity of Israel and the absolute sovereignty of Yahweh over all” (Philip Peter Jenson, Graded Holiness - A Key to the Priestly Conception of the World, pp.192-97).